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Photo Dated 28 September, 1914

Military History Time Line of the
Duchy of Braunschweig (Brunswick) & Infantry Regiment (IR) 92

BRUNSWICK (Ger. Braunschweig), a sovereign duchy of northern Germany, and a constituent state of the German empire, comprising three larger and six smaller portions of territory.  The principal or northern part, containing the towns of Brunswick, Wolfenbuttel and Helmstedt, is situated between the Prussian provinces of Hanover and Saxony to the south-east of the former.  The western part, containing Holzminden and Gandersheim, extends eastward from the river Weser to Goslar.  The Blankenburg, or eastern portion, lies to the south-east of the two former, between Prussia, the duchy Anhalt and the Prussian province of Hanover.  And six small enclaves lying in the Prussian provinces of Hanover and Saxony.  A portion of the Harz Mountains was common to Brunswick and Prussia (Hanover).  In 1874 a partition was effected, but the mines are still worked in common, four-sevenths of the revenues derived from them falling to Prussia and the remaining three-sevenths to Brunswick.

The northern portion of the duchy has its surface diversified by hill and plain; it is mostly arable and has little forest.  The other two principal portions are intersected by the Harz Mountains, and its spurs and the higher parts are covered with forests of fir, oak, and beech.  The climate is mild in the north, but in the hilly country raw and cold in winter, and in autumn and spring damp.  The area of the duchy is 1424 sq. m., and of this total fully one-half is arable land, 10% meadow and pasture, and 33% under forest.  The population in 1905 was 485,655.  The religion is, in the main, that of the Lutheran Evangelical church; but there is a large Roman Catholic community centered in and around Hildesheim, the seat of the bishopric of North Germany.  In the rural districts, broad Low German is spoken; but the language of the upper and educated classes is distinguished by its purity of style and pronunciation.

The land devoted to agriculture is excellently farmed.  The pasture land rears cattle and sheep of first-rate quality, and great attention is paid to the breeding of horses,  which includes the famous stud farm at Harzburg.   Agriculture, until recently, formed the chief wealth of the duchy, has now given way to the mining industry (coal, iron, lead, copper, sulfur, marble, alabaster, salt and more). The manufactures embrace sugar (from beet), spinning, tobacco, paper, soap machines, glass, china, beer, and sausages.  The last are famous throughout Germany.  The roads, of which one quarter is in the hands of the state, are excellently kept, and vie with those of any European country.

The constitution is that of a limited monarchy and dates from the 12th of October 1832.  The throne is hereditary in the house of Brunswick-Luneburg, according to the law of primogeniture, and in the male line of succession.  The parliament of the duchy is an assembly of estates forming one house of 48 deputies.  The house has little power in initiating legislation, but it can refuse taxation, impeach ministers and receive petitions.

By virtue of a convention with Prussia (1886), the Brunswick contingent to the Imperial forces forms a part of the Prussian Army and is attached to X Army Corps.  The convention can be rescinded only after a two year’s notice.

NOTE:  Brunswick and Braunschweig are inter-changed back and forth throughout this history; duchy of Braunschweig and duchy of Brunswick are one and the same.

  • 900’s - The lands which comprised the modern (1905) duchy of Brunswick belonged to the family of the Brunos, whence the name Brunswick was derived, from the counts of Nordheim and Supplinburg.

  • 1100’s - The lands were inherited by Henry the Proud, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, and a member of the family of Welf.  They subsequently  formed part of the extensive Saxon duchy ruled by his son, Henry the Lion.

  • 1181 - Henry was placed under an imperial ban and the duchy was dismembered.  He was allowed to retain his hereditary possessions,  which consisted of a large part of Brunswick and Luneburg.  The bulk of these lands came subsequently to Henry’s grandson, Otto.

  • 1235 - Anxious to be reconciled with the Welf’s, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, recognized Otto’s title and granted him the title of Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg.  Otto added several counties and the town of Hanover to his possessions.

  • 1252 - Duke Otto died and was succeeded by his sons Albert and John.

  • 1267 - Albert and John divided the duchy; Albert became duke of Brunswick and John, duke of Luneburg.  Over the coming years, the dukes of Luneburg increased the area of their duchy.

  • 1285 - The duchy of Brunswick was divided between Duke Albert’s three sons, whose relations with each other were far from harmonious, and the lines of Wolfenbuttel, Gottingen and Grubenhagen were established.

  • 1292 - The Wolfenbuttel branch died out.

  • 1312-1330 - Bruchard (of the von Cramm family) was the Bishop of Brunswick at   Hildesheim (and it will eventually become the Bishopric of all of northern Germany)

  • 1345 - The Wolfenbuttel  branch was re-founded by Magnus I, a younger member of the Gottingen family.

  • 1345-1369 – Magnus I, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel was the ancestor of the later dukes of Brunswick. 

  • 1369 - The family of the dukes of Luneburg eventually died out and a stubborn contest took place for its possession.  Claimed by Magnus II, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, this prince was forced by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV to abandon his pretensions.

  • 1388 - Magnus II’s sons, Frederick, Bernard, and Henry succeeded in incorporating Luneburg with Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel.

  • 1400 - Henry the Mild established the House of Brunswick and his descendants would rule until 1634.

  • 1428 - Bernard, the only survivor of the three sons of Magnus II, was forced to make a division of the duchy, by which he received Luneburg, while his nephews, William and Henry, obtained Brunswick.

  • 1432 - William and Henry divided Brunswick into Calenberg and Wolfenbuttel.

  • 1463 - William added Gottingen to his possessions.

  • 1463 - The elder Gottingen branch died out.

  • 1473 - Calenberg, Wolfenbuttel, and Gottingen were reunited.

  • 1514 - Duke Henry V converts to Lutheranism.

  • 1520 - Duke Henry V abdicated and his three sons divided the duchy.  Two of the branches founded at this time soon died out.

  • 1495-1584 – During these 89 years, the duchy was divided several times.

  • 1584 - Brunswick was united by Duke Julius.

  • 1596 - The Grubenhagen branch died out.  The Grubenhagen land was added to Brunswick.

  • 1569 - After the death of Ernest I, the representative of the third branch, his two sons agreed upon a partition which was of considerable importance in the history of Brunswick, since it established the lines of Dannenberg and of Luneberg-Celle.

  • 1617 - Duke Frederick Ulrich, the last male descendant of Henry the Mild was obliged to cede the territory of Grubenhagen to Luneburg.

  • 1634 - Duke Ulrich died with no male heirs and his family became extinct and Brunswick was divided between the two branches of the Luneburg family.

  • 1635 - The families of Dannenberg and of Luneburg-Celle divided the duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel.  The dukes of Luneburg-Celle subsequently took the name of Hanover and were the ancestors of the later kings of Hanover and England.  After the acquisition of 1635, the family of Dannenberg took the title of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, and ruled in the direct line until 1735.  It was then followed by the family of Brunswick-Bevern, which split off from the parent line in 1666 and ruled until 1884.

  • 1692 - Duke of Brunswick & Luneburg became a hereditary Elector of the Holy Roman Empire’s Electoral College.  Upon the death of the Holy Roman Emperor, the College selected the new Emperor.

  • 1701 - English Parliament amended the Law of Succession- Electress Sophia declared the next Protestant in line.  Her son became George I of England (House of Hanover) and her daughter Sophia (1668-1705)   became the first Electress of Brunswick in 1688, by marriage.

  • 1702-1704 - Duke Anthony Ulrich (1685-1702/1704-1714) deposed for allying with France during the War of the Spanish Succession. Converted to Catholicism in 1709.

  • 1731-1735 - Duke Louis Rudolph died and the duchy passed to the House of Brunswick-Bevern.

  • Mar 1735  - Grandson of Augustus the Younger became the duke for six months.

  • Sep 1735 - Charles I became the duke and moved the ducal court from Wolfenbuttel to Brunswick.      

  • 15 May 1756 - During the Seven year’s War (1756-63), the duchy of Brunswick supported Frederick the Great but was ravaged by France because of that support and Duke Charles I accumulated a huge war debt by 1763.
                   
  • 1 Aug 1759 – The battle of Minden (Seven Years War) won by General Charles William Ferdinand (1721-1792) of Brunswick.

  • 10 Feb 1763 - Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Year’s War.  Charles I in order to try and discharge his financial liabilities was willing to send his soldiers as mercenaries to assist England during the American War of Independence (1775-1783).

  • Winter 1776 - 4,300 Brunswick infantry and dragoons under the command of Major General Von Riedesel, joined General Burgoyne in Canada for his invasion of upstate New York and the Hudson River valley.

  • 16 Aug 1777 - Colonel Friedrich Baum (Brunswick) commanded approximately 1,200 Brunswick (dismounted) dragoons, Canadian, Tory and Indian troops and they were defeated by General John Stark and 2,000 American militia at Bennington, Vermont.  After the Indians and other troops fled, the Brunswick Prinz Ludwig Dragoon regiment continued to fight.  But after running low on powder, made a saber charge on foot to try and break out, Colonel Baum was mortally wounded and the dragoons were forced to surrender.

  • 17 Oct 1777 - General Burgoyne after being unable to defeat the American forces under Generals Gates and Arnold at the engagements of Freeman’s Farm (19 Sep) and Bemis Heights (7 Oct), retreated toward Fort Ticonderoga but was surrounded and forced to surrender near Saratoga, NY.  The Brunswickers under Major General V. Riedesel had attacked the Americans on Bemis Heights and were gaining the upper hand when reinforcements under General Arnold arrived and stabilized the American lines.  The Saratoga campaign cost the Brunswickers 1,122 killed and wounded and 2,431 captured.

    General Gates demanded “unconditional surrender” but Burgoyne refused and instead both parties agreed to a treaty of Convention whereby the English Army would return to England on the promise not to return to fight again.  The Continental Congress refused to ratify the treaty and the prisoners are held in camps in New England, Virginia and Pennsylvania.  To add to the difficulties of the  Brunswickers, their Duke (Charles I) refused to honor the treaty because it was felt the returning soldiers would hinder future recruitment.   This led to hard feelings and a high desertion rate by the prisoners and of the over 5,000 Brunswickers held prisoner in America, over 2,500 remained and became Americans after 1783.

    Major General V. Riedesel’s wife saved all of the Brunswick regimental colors from being surrendered by hiding them in her mattress.  The colors were returned to the duke of Brunswick in 1783.

  • 1780 - Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand became the duke of Brunswick.

  • 20 Sep 1792 - Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand (1735-1806) was appointed Allied
    commander-in-chief for the invasion of France.  The Army, however was defeated at the battle of Valmy which secured the safety of revolutionary France.  The duke retired from military service until 1806.

  • 3 Dec 1800   - The Holy Roman Empire army was defeated by France at the battle of Hohelinden in Bavaria.

  • 5 Jul 1803 - Electorate of Hanover annexed by France.

  • 26 Dec 1805 - Treaty of Pressburg.  The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved.

  • 8 Oct 1806 - Hostilities commenced between Prussia and France.

  • 14 Oct 1806 - Prussian, Saxon & Brunswick army, commanded by the senior Field Marshal, duke of Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, was defeated at Auerstadt.  The Duke was mortally wounded.

  • 7 Jul 1807 - Treaty of Tilst.  The duchy of Braunschweig was dissolved and its lands incorporated into the Kingdom of Westfalia under King Jerome Bonaparte.  The exiled duke (4th son), Frederick Wilhelm went to Austria for refuge.

  • 25 Feb 1809 - Frederick Wilhelm was authorized to raise a corps of infantry and cavalry to fight with Austria against France.

  • 1 Apr 1809 - The Brunswick Corps assembled at Nachod, Bohemia.  Black uniforms and the Skull & Crossbones were adopted- Der Schwarzer     Herzog (Black Duke) and Die Schwarzer Schar (Black Band).  (This is the first official birthday of IR 92)

  • 9 Apr 1809 - Hostilities commenced between Austria and France.

  • Apr/May 1809 - Austrian troops and the Black Corps under the command of Austrian Major General Am Ende were camped around Theresienstadt, Bohemia.

  • 21/22 May 1909 - Bloody inconclusive battle of Aspern & Essling forced Napoleon to  withdraw across the Danube River back into Vienna to plan a new course of action against the main Austrian army under Archduke Charles.

  • 25 May 1809 - French allied Saxon forces under Oberst Thielmann invaded Bohemia.

  • 23/29 May 1809- Major General Am Ende’s Corps was reinforced and ordered to make a diversionary attack into Saxony.

  • 30/31 May 1809- The Black Corps stormed the Saxon town of Zittau and Oberst Thielmann withdrew his Saxon forces from Dresden.

  • 10 Jun 1809 - The Black Corps departed the town of Aussig.

  • 12 Jun 1809 - The Black Corps attacked the town of Gorbitz and pushed Oberst Thielmann back to Nessen.

  • 5/6 Jul 1809 - The battle of Wagram.  Austria defeated and sued for peace.  The Black Duke and his Corps were now on their own, deep in central Germany, surrounded on all sides by enemies.

  • 21/23 Jul 1809- The Black Corps, approximately 2,110 strong, arrived at Zwickau and reorganized into three infantry battalions, a reinforced cavalry regiment and a four gun battery of Horse Artillery.

  • 24 Jul 1809 - The Black Corps departed Zwickau and marched to Leipzig, forcing the royal Saxon family to depart the city.

  • 6 Aug 1809 - The Braunschweig rear guard (although the Hussars were broken  during the skirmish at Heidbrug) escaped to Elsfleth and rejoined the main body.
                         
    Die Schwarzer Schar had reached Elsleth with enough time ahead of their pursuers, to sell their horses and then approximately 1,600 strong, embarked on English ships of the Baltic fleet and sailed first to Heligoland and then to the Isle of Wight.  There, they underwent a period of rest and reorganization (one infantry battalion [Brunswick-Oels Jagers with a HQ detachment and 12 companies] and one regiment of hussars with two squadrons) before entering British service and fighting in the Peninsula from 1810 to 1814.  Before departing for Spain to join the Duke of Wellington’s Peninsula army, the Queen of England presented a “Schellenbaum” (Jingling Johnny) to the Brunswickers.  Eventually, IR 92 carried it in their regimental band from 1867 until December 1918, when it was given to the Braunschweig Landesmuseum for safe keeping and display.

  • 8 Oct 1810 - Brunswick-Oels Jagers arrived in Lisbon, Portugal.  Originally assigned to General Coles British 4th Division, they were transferred to General Crauford’s Light Division and fought in the following actions:

  • 17 Nov 1810 - Pursuit of Marshal Massena’s French army away from their siege lines at Torres Vedras.

  • 19 Nov 1810 - Battle of Santaren.

  • 12 Mar 1811 - Battle/skirmish of Redinha.

  • 14 Mar 1811 - Battle of Casal Novo.

  • 16 Mar 1811 - Battle/skirmish of Foz d’Arouce.

  • Mar/Apr 1811- Brunswick-Oels Jagers transferred to General Von Alten’s 7th Division and fought in the following actions:

  • 3-5 May 1811 - Battle of Fuentes d’Onoro.

  • 6-9 Jun 1811 - Battle of San Cristobal

  • 1812 - Siege of Badajoz

  • 22 Jul 1812 - Battle of Salamanca.

  • 1813 - The duke of Brunswick-Oels (Frederick Wilhelm) was confirmed in his ducal title, family possessions and lands.  The duchy of Brunswick was recreated from ancestral lands as the French retreated from central and northern Germany during Napoleon’s disastrous 1813 campaign, culminating in his defeat at the battle of Leipzig.

  • 21 Jun 1813 - Battle of Vittoria.

  • 30 Jul 1813 - Battle of Sorauren.

  • 2 Aug 1813 - Battle/skirmish of Echalar.

  • 31 Aug 1813 - Siege of Bidassoa.

  • 9 Dec 1813 - Battle/skirmish of Nive.

  • 27 Feb 1814 - Battle of Orthez.

  • 16 Mar 1814 - The Brunswick III Infantry Line battalion was formed as the duchy  began to recruit and raise forces from ancestral lands for the first time since the duchy was dissolved in 1807.  The Herzogfahne (Duke’s Colors) and Batallionfahne (Battalion Colors) were presented to the battalion.  (These colors will be presented to III battalion, IR 92 in 1867)

  • 25 Dec 1814 - The Brunswick-Oels Jagers left British service and sailed for home.
               
  • 14 Apr 1815 - The Braunschweig Leib (Guard/Life) battalion was raised and formed using Peninsula veterans.

  • May  1815 - The duke of Brunswick (Frederick Wilhelm) commanded a force of approximately 7,118 in three battalions of Line infantry (destined to become I, II & III battalions of IR 92), three battalions of Light infantry, an Advance Guard  battalion, a Leib battalion (which will also be incorporated into III battalion IR92), a battery of Foot Artillery and a regiment of Hussars (which served in the British Cavalry Reserve).

  • 9 Jun 1815 - The Congress of Vienna recognized the territory of Wolfenbuttel as a
    sovereign and independent state under the title of the duchy of Brunswick.

    Duchy of Brunswick joined the German Confederation.

  • 16 Jun 1815 - Battle of Quatre Bras.  The Duke was mortally wounded while trying to reform the Leib battalion in the village of Quatre Bras.  Oberst Olermann took command of the Brunswick forces.

  • 18 Jun 1815 - Battle of Waterloo.  Placed in Wellington’s reserve early in the battle, the Brunswick infantry earned the praise of senior British officers for their help in defending the Chateau and orchards of Hougemont; in helping to repulse the numerous French cavalry charges led by Marshal Ney; and finally, in helping to repulse the attack of the French Imperial Guards, particularly the 1st Battalion,
    3rd Foot Guard (3rd Grenadier-a-Pied, Old Guard) regiment.  1,556 Brunswickers were killed, wounded and captured in the two battles (22%).

  • Jul 1815 - The Braunschweig Hussar regiment left British service and returned home.

  • 1816 - The infantry was reduced to four battalions; two light and two line.The infantry shako had the Ducal Arms as a front plate. 

  • 1820 - Duke Frederick Wilhelm’s oldest son (a minor) Charles II was under the regency of the King of Hanover, George (soon to become George IV of England) who ruled the duchy through Count Munster-Ledenburg and Justus v. Schmidt-Phiseldeck.  A new constitution was granted.

  • 1823 - Charles II became the duke but was very unpopular and quarreled with his subjects and relatives.

  • 1830 -  A revolution drove him out of Brunswick and his brother, William became the duke (William VIII) and began a long reign (1830-1884) instituting many necessary reforms to include trial by jury, freedom of the press, removal of many religious restrictions and freedom of trade.

  • 12 Oct 1832 - A new constitution was granted.

  • 1844 - The 1st and 2nd battalions continued to wear the Ducal heraldic front plate while the 3rd battalion (Leib) wore the Skull atop the Peninsula band.

  • 1848 - The 1st battalion had its companies renumbered 1-8 and the Leib battalion was renumbered 9-12.  The Brunswick contingent (infantry and artillery) was placed in the X Army Corps with contingents from Hanover, Mecklenburg and Oldenburg.  A new uniform (black) was adopted that was an emulation of the Napoleonic style and the Leib battalion became the “tradition” carrier of the old Schwarze Schar. 

  • 1848/1849 - The regiment/battalions gained several battle honors in the war against Denmark over the territories of Schleswig and Holstein.

  • 1866 - The duchy of Brunswick joined the North German Condeferation of the Prussian Army and also assumed the familiar Prussian three battalion organization.  They would keep this formation through the end of the First World War with the only change being the addition of the 13th company (Machine Gun).  The Brunswickers saw no action against Austria in the Austro-Prussian War.

  • 1866 - The question of succession became acute with duke William VIII unmarried.  Under existing conventions, the title would pass to George IV, of England and Hanover, who had lost Hanover when it was annexed by the King of Prussia.

  • 17 Apr 1867 - This is the second official birthday of IR 92:
      A.  Herzoglich Braunschweigisches Infanterie – Regiment NR. 92                
      B.  Leib (Guard/Life) Battalion incorporated into III Battalion IR 92
      C. 1814 1st Line Bn Colors presented to II Bn, IR 92
           1814 2nd Line Bn Colors presented to I Bn, IR 92
           1814 3rd Line Bn Colors presented to III Bn, IR 92
                                                           
  • 1870/1871 - During the Franco-Prussian War, the Brunswick troops in the X Army Corps fought in the following battles:

  • 16 Aug 1870 – Battle of Vionville-Mars La Tour

  • 18 Aug 1870 – Battle of Gravelotte-St. Privat

  • 19 Aug-27 Oct – Siege of Metz

  • 3/4 Dec - Battle of Orleans

  • 11/12 Jan 1871 - Battle of Le Mans and several other actions during the month.

  • 1871 - Paris was captured.

    Duchy of Brunswick becomes a state in the German Empire.

  • 1871/1877 - The Brunswick contingent served as part of the Army of Occupation in Alsace until it returned to the city of Braunschweig to become the permanent garrison.

  • 1879 - Duke William VIII and the estates, with the active support of Prussia, concluded an arrangement for a temporary council of regency to take over the government on his death.

  • 18 Oct 1884 - Duke William VIII died ending the Wolfenbuttel line and George IV’s son, Ernest, duke of Cumberland claimed the title of duke of Brunswick and promised to respect the German constitution.  The claim was disregarded by the council of regency as his claim would not have been in the best interests of the peace and security of the duchy based on his hostile attitude towards Prussia over the earlier annexation of Hanover in 1866.

  • 1885 - Prince Albert of Prussia was chosen as regent.  This brought the duchy of Brunswick even more under the influence of Prussia.

  • 1886 – The Prussian War Ministry and the Brunswick War Ministry signed a convention officially integrating the Brunswick military into the Prussian system.  The Prussian blue uniform would replace the black uniform as the old uniforms wore out.  The old black uniforms were patched and repaired and continued to be worn for another six years.

  • 1892 - Pickelhaub helmet officially adopted by IR92. 

  • 1 May 1892 - The black uniform was worn for the last time during the Wache ceremony at the royal residence.

  • Sep 1906 - Regent Prince Albert died.

  • May 1907 - After futile negotiations with the duke of Cumberland, the Brunswick Diet chose duke John Albert of Mecklenburg-Schwerin as regent. 

  • Apr 1909 - The entire regiment was authorized to wear the Skull and Crossbones on their helmet for “one” year to commemorate the centenary of the raising of the “Schwarzen Schar.”  However, IR92 continued to wear the Skull and Crossbones in the following years without authorization.

  • 1910 - The new feldgrau uniforms were issued to replace the blue uniforms.

  • 1912 - The Kaiser issued a “retroactive” order, allowing IR92 to continue to wear the Skull and Crossbones.

    The duke of Cumberland’s oldest son died, and he renounced his claim to the duchy of Brunswick in favor of his youngest son, Ernest Augustus.

    Ernest Augustus married Kaiser Wilhelm’s daughter, Victoria-Louisa.

  • Nov 1913 - Ernest Augustus III swore allegiance to the German Empire and  allowed to ascend to the throne of the duchy of Brunswick.

  • 28 Jun 1914 - Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo.

  • 8 Aug 1914  -  IR92 entered Belgium as part of the 20th division in the X Army Corps.

  • 22 Aug - IR92 was instrumental in breaking the defense of five French infantry  regiments at Roselies (west of Namur).  The fighting was severe and IR92 lost almost as many casualties in this one battle as in the entire Franco-Prussian War.

  • 29 Aug - French 5th Army attacked St. Quentin.  IR92 helped to smash the heavy counterattacks which eventually forced the French to retreat to the Marne River.

  • 9 Sep - IR92 was part of an attack on St. Prix, just south of the Marne River and made good progress when surprisingly the order to withdraw was received.  Known as the Miracle of the Marne, French troops from Paris had attacked the exposed right flank of the German armies and forced a withdrawal from the Marne.

    IR92 fought several rear guard actions as the X Corps moved back to the Reims area.  Trenches were dug and IR92 helped defend the positions at Courcyand and Berry au Bac, sustaining heavy casualties.

  • Apr 1915 – X Corps (IR92) was withdrawn from the line and began its movement to the Eastern Front and campaigns in Galicia and Poland.

  • 1 May 1915 - Detrained at Neusandez in the Beskid Mountains and joined other
    German troops breaking through to the east and reached Gorlice.

  • Early May 1915 - 20th division (IR92) forced a crossing of the San River.

  • May  1915 - X Corps (IR92) went into positions opposite strong Russian defensive positions at Lubaczowka and remained for three weeks before storming Buczyna at the point of the bayonet.  By breaking through the positions at Buczyna, the X Corps was able to advance towards Lemberg.

  • Jun 1915 - IR92 took part in offensive operations at Sucha Wola and Rewa, Russka, supporting the main battle at Lemberg.  IR92 then joined in the pursuit of the Russians defeated at Lemberg, as far as Tomaszow.

  • 6/8 Jul 1915 - In response to a Russian attack further to the north, IR92 was sent to Krasnystaw on the Wieprz River and took part in the heavy fighting and helped to repulse the Russian attacks.  The defeated Russians were pursued over the Wieprz and Bug Rivers. 

  • Sep 1915 -  X Corps (IR92) conducted a forced march of over 1,000 km to reach the German railroad at Bialystok and entrained to be transported back to France and the Western Front.

  • Sep 1915 -  X Corps arrived back in Champagne and took up defensive positions in the sector between Reims and the Argonne Forest.  IR92 occupied the positions at Somme-Py, where the French had previously made deep penetrations in the German front lines.  IR92 succeeded after bitter hand-to-hand fighting in throwing the French back and re-established the original front line.

  • Oct 1915 - The French launched numerous infantry assaults supported by concentrated artillery fire on IR92’s position at Somme-Py.  The attacks did not subside until the middle of the month.  IR92 had almost been wiped out by the furious and relentless French attacks.  The regiment was moved out of the line and sent to a quiet sector 70 kms to the west between Soissons and Reims to an area south of Laon (of the Chemin des Dames).  The regiment rested, trained and was brought back up to full strength.

  • Jun 1916 - X Corps (IR92) was again sent to the Eastern Front and detrained near Kovel for their campaign in Volhynia.  IR92 immediately marched south to provide relief for some hard pressed Austrian troops.

    The Russian summer offensive of 1916 had broken through the Austrian defense near Lutsk.  X Corps set up a blocking position at Kieselin, south of Kovel.  X Corps (IR92) successfully defended this position against massive Russian human wave assaults.

  • Aug 1916 - The Russian offensive eventually collapsed and the X Corps was sent back to the Western Front.

  • Dec 1916 - IR92 was sent to Alsace upon arriving from the Eastern Front (Aug 1916) and remained for four months to rest, train and incorporate new replacements.  The stahlheim was issued to the regiment, replacing their pickelhaubs.

  • Jan 1917 - The 20th division (IR92) was moved back into its old defensive positions along the Chemin des Dames in anticipation of a new French offensive (Nivelles’ 1917 Offensive).

  • Apr 1917 - IR92 was in position between Courtecon and Cerny, when the French offensive struck.  IR92 held its assigned position against massive bombardments, gas attacks and numerous infantry assaults.  The French attempt at a breakthrough failed but IR 92 lost almost three quarters of its established strength.  The failure of Nivelles’ offensive lead to the collapse of the French offensive spirit with one of the results, the mutiny of 1917 and French troops willing to defend but refusing to attack.

  • Apr/May 1917 - Two weeks after the fighting died down in the Chemin des Dames area, IR92 (badly in need of replacements) was sent east 80 kms to Ropont, between Reims and the Argonne Forest.  It was a relatively quiet section of the lines, compared to where they had just left.

  • Jul 1917 - The 20th division received orders for the third time to move to the Eastern Front for a campaign in East Gallacia.  IR92 detrained at Novitsa-Landestreu in the Carpathian Mountains to again lend support to hard pressed Austrian troops.  The Russian Kerensky Offensive had broken through the Austrian defense east of Novitsa.  IR92 arrived just east of Novitsa and immediately ran into the attacking Russians.  After six days of bitter fighting, the 20th division pushed the Russians back.

  • Aug 1917- IR92 was sent by train, 100 kms north to Zborovsk.  This was the jumping off point for the German counteroffensive to capture Tarnopol.  The regiment arrived too late as the city has already been captured but joined in the pursuit of the defeated Russians over the Sereth and Sbrucz Rivers.  The last Russian resistence was broken on the crest of the Miody Mountains.

    With the Russian offensive’s southern flank smashed and in order to assist in the destruction of the northern flank, the 20th division was transported 800 kms to Latvia.

  • 29 Aug 1917 - The 20th division arrived at Mitau and immediately began to march toward Riga.

  • 3 Sep 1917 - IR92 crossed the Duna River, south of Rodenpolis and began pushing  the retreating Russians towards the north.  The last, great Russian offensive of the war had been stopped.
                    
  • Sep 1917 - The 20th division, for the last time, left the Eastern Front and  headed back to the Western Front.

  • 1 Oct 1917 - The 20th division was moved into the Flanders front line as a relief division to allow another division out of the line to rest and refit.  Since August, the English had been carrying out a relentless battle of attrition.  IR92 occupied a sector of swampy ground at Passschendaele, near Ypres.  IR92 had never experienced such intense bombardments as the superior English artillery brought down on them.  The English penetrations could not always be thrown back even with fierce counter- attacks that eventually ended up in hand-to-hand fighting.

  • 9 Oct 1917 - Decimated by intense artillery fire and gas attacks, the 20th division had to be relieved after only nine days of fighting.

    The division was moved to a sector 80 kms south of Cambrai to Queant-Pronville.  With the shortening of a westerly bulge in the lines at the beginning of 1917, the front line included portions of the “Siegfried Line.”

  • 30 Nov 1917 - The English opened a major attack (Cambrai) with strong artillery preparation and supported by hundreds of tanks.  One battalion of IR92 took part in a counterattack which threw the English back to their starting line.  Heavy casualties were suffered by both sides.
        
  • 21 Mar 1918 - IR92 moved out of its defensive positions in the Siegfried Line to join
    in the last great German offensive of the war.  IR92 was part of the most northen attacking Army group and advanced 30 kms to the west behind a massive, rolling artillery barrage past Bapaume into the area around Monchy.  The offensive soon came to a standstill and IR92 had to be relieved due to heavy casualties.  The regiment was then sent to a quiet sector 30 kms south of Verdun at St. Mihiel to receive replacements.

  • Jul 1918 - The 20th division (IR92) took part in the last German offensive.  The
    division attacked from the Soissons-Reims front toward the south.  The division pushed through French and American lines and advanced 15 km to the area around Villemontoire.

  • Aug 1918 - The French threw numerous counterattacks with tanks against the 20th
    division.  The offensive was stopped and IR92 was sent back to their position at Monchy.

  • Sep 1918 - The Anglo-Franco-American offensive began on the Western front.  There was very little left to oppose the material superiority of the Allies in manpower, artillery, munitions and tanks.  All the ground previously gained had to be given back.  IR92 withdrew back to its old position in the Siegfried Line and defended here until the beginning of Oct 1918.  Like all the other regiments in the 20th division, IR92 had almost been wiped out in the fierce fighting.

  • Oct 1918 -  20th division received replacements and moved east by truck, 160 kms to the French-Luxembourg border.  The American spearheads had already crossed the Meuse River.

  • 4/6 Oct -  IR92 repulsed American attacks at Hoheneichenberg, then conducted a fighting retreat to the area around Baalon.

  • 11 Nov 1918 - IR92 offered resistance right up to the Armistice and most of the soldiers remained with their colors to the very end with very few desertions.

  • 3 Dec 1918 -  I, II and III battalions, IR92 marched into the city of Braunschweig in good military order with their colors flying and the regimental band playing.

  • Dec 1918 - Duke Ernest Augustus III abdicated ending the rule of the House of Hanover.

    Free state of Brunswick/Braunschweig founded as a member state of the Weimar Republic.

Editor’s Note:   I liberally plagiarized, copied and paraphrased from all the sources and references.  I was not trying to rewrite history but rather was trying to get the most accurate history of the duchy of Braunschweig and IR92.  And, the original authors wrote it better than I ever could have.  I apologize to anyone offended.
-Herr “Scampi” Galleher  (13th MGK, IR92)

Sources:

  • Pelet- “The French Campaign in Portugal, 1810-1811”
  • Siborne- “History of the Waterloo Campaign”
  • Napier- “History of the War in the Peninsula, 1807-1814”
  • Oman- “History of the Peninsula war”
  • Petre- “Napoleon and the Archduke Charles”
  • Rosignoli- “Flags of the Napoleonic wars #3”
  • Pivka- “Brunswick Troops, 1809-1815”
  • Hill- “With Eagles to Glory”
  • Volker Greisser-“1809-1814”
  • Wilson/ v. Cramm-“ Family History/Papers of the von Cramm Family, 1300-1990”
  • Wikipedia- Duchy of Brunswick
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica/Brunswick- 1911
  • Knotel, Pietsch, Collas.  Das Deutsche Heer.  Spemann, Stuttgart, 1937 & 1982
  • Ortenburg, Geor.  Braunschweigisches Militar.  Elm Verlag, 1987
  • Author unknown- “Wrote unit history 1914-1918 and appeared in Der Schutzengraben IR 92 newsletter”